Kidney Disease Risk Factors
Although CKD can be caused by primary disease of the kidneys themselves, it is most often a secondary effect of diseases like diabetes, hypertension, HIV, lupus, etc.
Diabetes: Diabetes is the primary disease most often associated with CKD. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in the U.S. That’s because elevated blood sugars over time can impair blood flow to the kidneys, causing damage. People with both Type 1 diabetes (once called juvenile onset) and Type 2 diabetes (once called adult onset, but now also increasingly common among preteens and teenagers) are at high risk for CKD and should be tested regularly.
Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause kidney damage over time.
Atherosclerosis: Hardening of the arteries and the formation of plaque in the arteries that supplies the kidneys causes ischemic nephropathy, which can result in progressive kidney damage.
Glomerulonephritis: This disease causes inflammation and damage to the kidney filtration system and can result in kidney failure. Glomerulonephritis can be caused by lupus and from infections that follow injury or surgery.
Obstruction: An enlarged prostate often obstructs the flow of urine and may therefore possibly cause kidney stones.
Polycystic Kidney Disease: This is a hereditary disease that may cause cysts in both kidneys.
Analgesic Nephropathy: Long-term use of analgesics like acetaminophen (Tylenol®) and ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) may cause CKD.
Other Causes: HIV infection, sickle cell anemia, heroin abuse, amyloidosis, chronic kidney infections and certain types of cancer can also cause CKD.
Reversible factors contributing to CKD It is possible that the following reversible components of renal insufficiency can be corrected especially in older persons (over 70) and in children:
• Nephrotoxic agents such as acetaminophen and non steroidal analgesics
• Obstruction, especially chronic prostate enlargement and stric¬tures.
• Reduction of blood pressure to 130/80 mm Hg. or better